# Thermal analysis

### TEMP/W analyzes thermal changes in the ground due to environmental factors or the construction of facilities such as buildings or pipelines.

#### The software can be applied to the geothermal analysis and design of geotechnical, civil, and mining engineering projects, including facilities subjected to freezing and thawing temperature changes.

### Convective Boundary

The convective heat transfer boundary condition simulates artificial ground freezing or other processes involving the flow of fluid over or within a bounding surface.

### Forced Convection

Heat transfer is often governed by forced convection in natural hydrogeological systems. TEMP/W can be fully-integrated with SEEP/W and AIR/W to analyze heat transfer via the groundwater flow and air flow, respectively.

### Land Climate Interaction

Analyze problems that involve a coupling between climatic conditions and the thermal response within the ground in TEMP/W using a climate boundary condition.

### Model Thermosyphons

TEMP/W implements a rigorous thermosyphon boundary condition that can accommodate either two-dimensional or pseudo-3D analysis of Thermosyphons.

### Mine Shaft Freezing

Artificial ground freezing is used in many engineering projects to excavate and construct mine shafts, tunnels or other underground structures through water bearing, often unstable, ground formations. This example demonstrates a procedure for modeling the freeze wall growth for a mine shaft project.

Draw the regions in your domain using CAD-like drawing tools, including drawing polygon and circular regions, coordinate import, copy-paste geometric items, length and angle feedback, region splitting and merging, and direct keyboard entry of coordinates, lengths, and angles. Alternatively, import AutoCAD DWG or DXF files directly into GeoStudio to create your domain geometry.

Define the material properties for your analysis, assign them to regions on the domain, and then define your initial temperature conditions. Select from Simplified Thermal, Full Thermal, Coupled Convective or Interface material models. Define thermal material constants or functions for thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity, unfrozen water content, and more. Define the initial temperature conditions for transient scenarios using results from other TEMP/W analyses or defined spatial functions.

When the Solver is finished, the temperature contours are displayed, along with the location of phase change isoline, or 0°C isoline for the time step, and heat flux vectors. You can display other contours of almost any parameter including pore-water pressure, material properties, water flow, and gradients, using the Draw Contours window. Contour legends and properties can also be modified. Labels can be added to contour lines and flux sections for display in Results View. Flow paths based on energy flow rate vectors can also be drawn in steady-state analyses.

Interactively select any node or gauss region to view result information, including temperature, thermal flux, material properties, and more. Display plots of computed results over the x- or y-direction or create time-varying plots of results in transient analyses, such as temperature, heat flux, cumulative energy flux and more. Generate reports of the definition and results, and export into other applications such as Microsoft Excel for further analysis.

## The power of integration

### TEMP/W offers simple but powerful analytical capabilities when used in combination with other GeoStudio products.

### Convective Heat Flow

TEMP/W analyses can obtain water fluxes from a SEEP/W analysis to simulate heat transfer via forced convection.

### TEMP/W results in AIR/W

TEMP/W can use the air fluxes from AIR/W to model forced-convection heat transfer. TEMP/W can also be integrated with AIR/W to model density-dependent air flow.